Zhangjiakou – terminus of the Mongol trade

For years I have wanted to visit Zhangjiakou.

Sure everyone says they want to go there, but how many people actually do? Wait – what I meant was that nobody says they want to go there. In fact, why don’t you just go ahead and enjoy that first sentence again, since I’m fairly sure that nobody has ever experessed that sentiment before.

Zhangjiakou is a city in the north of Hebei province, way up in the mountains. Back in the 1940s, three intrepid scholars spent months walking the hills of this and a neighboring county, poking into every village, and recording every religious artifact, all while the Chinese civil war raged around them. Their research is what started my interest in Chinese local religion. One of the three was the great Li Shiyu, who many decades later advised my dissertation research in Tianjin.

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Now imagine it without the roads or bridges

Zhangjiakou was also an important point on the caravan trade with the grassland. It’s right on the Great Wall, and some older maps will call it Kalgan, from the word meaning “gate.”

So this is where the frontier started, making it hugely important as a center of commerce. All of the trade firms were represented, not just Chinese but also American, British, Japanese and Russian.

I came up here as part of my research on animal trade. I was hoping just to get a feel for the city, and was amazed to discover these Qing-era buildings still intact. Not just the trade buildings, but the whole walled city center, which is now a neighborhood called Baozili 堡子里.

Chinese cities were traditionally built walled, which restricted their size. A map of walled city would typically look like this.

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Inside the beltway

That’s not everything, just everything that mattered: official buildings, temples and academies. Most ordinary people lived outside the walls.

I have seen this sort of map a hundred times, but never actually seen an old city. Most city walls were destroyed in the 1940s and 50s, and most remaining buildings were lost to development decades ago. You might see a temple or two, but not the actual street grid.

Except here. For whatever reason, most of the old buildings were left standing, and a even a bit of the wall remains where the Jade Emperor Temple sits on top of it. You can easily see the square shape of the old city on a modern map.

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Walking around the old city, you can really appreciate just how close everything was. All of the power players were within a few minutes walk of each other.

Another surprise was that most of these buildings had Maoist-era slogans still visible. In most other places, these slogans would have been assiduously scrubbed off or painted over. But here they were faded but completely legible. So basically, it’s a museum of the 1860s and the 1960s.

Is it worth a trip on its own, maybe not, but definitely worth seeing if you are in the area.

Cows in Hong Kong (no brisket)

And… now I am in Hong Kong!

If there are two more different places on this planet than Bozeman, Montana and Hong Kong, I have yet to see them. Strangely, one thing that the two places share in common is cows.

Let me explain.

The way we see the world is situational. If you are hungry, you see restaurants. If you are on a long road trip, you see coffee. Back in the day, when travel in China was quite different, I would instinctively scan the horizon for bathrooms. That was my geography – how far do I need to travel from any given spot to get to a bathroom. Ah, memories.

Anyways, now that I am working on this new research project, I see cows. This was rather straightforward in Bozeman, where one sees them everywhere in a variety of forms: living cows, cow statues, barbecue joints, the whole deal. You kind of expect it.

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Above: It’s not just hiking directions; it’s a way of life.

Here’s the thing, the same is true in Hong Kong, if you are seeing the world through bovine eyes.

Yesterday, I went to my favorite place in Taipo Market 大埔墟 to Taipo to have my favorite Chaozhou steamed brisket, and hopefully to geta bit of information about why beef would be a local specialty of that area. As it turns out, the place was packed, and nobody had time to chit chat. So ignoring the universal rule that if a restaurant is empty, there’s probably a reason, I went to the place across the street, and was predictably disappointed.

To cheer myself up, I went for a little walk around, and saw cows everywhere. Stores that specialized in selling beef. I learned that Korean beef is now the big thing, but nobody could explain why. (I blame K-Pop)  I saw plenty of beef specialty restaurants, like this one here for beef stewed in a clear soup.

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Not pictured: fifty other people who had the same idea.

 

I even a notice to look out for feral cattle in Sai kung.

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Also, don’t hug them. This does need to be said.

Eventually, I ended up a pop up display in the Taipo Mall from none other than Dairy Farm. Now, Dairy Farm was originally a British milk concern, though it is now owned partially by Nestle. As a historian, I am academically very interested in Dairy Farm, and had planned to go up to Pok Fu Lam near Hong Kong University to see the newly restored original site of the dairy.

Instead I found myself here, with about two dozen little kids who were lined up to milk this giant plastic Holstein. (Yes, they did have little rubber udders on the thing, and a bucket, but more than that I didn’t want to know).

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Look away, Bessie. Look away…

Now, all this is fascinating from the larger perspective of my research, which takes a very broad view of animals in our world. So far, I have been focusing on tangible elements like production chains, but eventually I want to spend as much time on cows as companions, who share our human space as friends, food, or dead eyed statues in a Hong Kong mall.

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This wouldn’t happen in Sai Kung

So I didn’t get my brisket, but I did get an ice cream, plus some face time with Bessie.

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What’s behind the rapprochement between China and the Vatican?

Originally posted in East Asia Forum
23 February 2017
The authority to appoint bishops has been a key point of contention in the restoration of relations between China and the Vatican. Since formally severing relations in 1951, China has refused torecognise any papal authority over the Chinese Church, particularly in appointing episcopal leadership.
For its part, the Roman Church does not recognise the legitimacy of the seven bishops that have been named by the official Chinese Catholic Patriotic Association (CCPA) in defiance of papalauthority. As a result, Chinese Catholics are led by two separate sets of bishops, one recognised by Beijing, and the other by Rome.
Earlier this month, Cardinal John Tong Hon of the Diocese of Hong Kong announced that the Vaticanand the Chinese government had come to an initial consensus on the appointment of bishops for the Catholic Church in China. Culminating one year of intense negotiations by a working group, thisannouncement marked a milestone of progress in the long, and at times highly acrimonious, relationship between Beijing and the Holy See.
The draft agreement [1] charts a path to the resolution of these problems. While the Chinese sideremains loathe to allow any foreign intrusion into the authority of the state-led CCPA, it seemsprepared to recognise the ultimate authority of the pontiff to confirm or reject bishops that havebeen chosen by the Church in China, as well as a willingness to politically recognise the more than thirty underground bishops that have previously been appointed by Rome.
For its part, the Vatican would accept the apologies of the CCPA-appointed bishops and allow theChinese government to conduct and act upon its own investigation of the three Chinese bishopswhom the Church has accused of “moral misconduct.”
The question is: why is this long-delayed rapprochement coming now?
On the part of the Vatican, the change is clearly generational, and reflects the personal priorities of Pope Francis. Although policy since the Second Vatican Council of the 1960s has subjected Catholicsto the laws and customs of secular authorities, decades of mistrust, dating back to the open persecution of the Chinese Church during the 1950s, have left China a rare outlier.
Papal diplomacy under Pope Francis has affirmed the need for accommodation with political authorities. In addition to China, Francis has initiated dialogue with old enemies, such as the Castro regime in Cuba, and sparked controversy by publicised meetings with Catholic social justice activistsin such places as South Korea.
Dissenting voices within the Church have rejected any suggestion of ceding papal authority to the CCPA. Cardinal Joseph Zen, former bishop of Hong Kong and the highest ranking cleric in China, has been particularly outspoken [2] in his criticism of the planned reconciliation, suggesting [3] Guardian that the pope is “a little naive” and “doesn’t have the background to know the Communists in China.” Zen has elsewhere charged that the rapprochement would create a “false freedom” for Chinese Catholics, and proposing that under such circumstances, the faithful might simply pray at home. 
China has much to gain from improved relations with the Vatican. In addition to improving its image with the United States and neighbours such as the largely Catholic Philippines, rapprochement withRome has the potential to woo the Vatican away from its close relationship with Taiwan [4] (including influential Catholics such as vice president Chen Chien-jen). 
But the real benefit for China is domestic. China has struggled to find a solution to the religious resurgence that has been growing since the 1990s. The quiet downgrading of the campaign against Falun Gong [5] suggests that authorities understand the limits and cost of criminalising religion.Recently promulgated revisions [6] of the 2005 Religious Affairs Regulations confirm continuation of the policy that accommodates the socially progressive elements of religion.
Most importantly, the policy of rapprochement with the Vatican removes the risk of China’s 12 million Catholics being siphoned off into an underground Church. Given the continued attempts to suppress underground Protestant churches [7], the benefits of having the Vatican as an ally in a legal Catholic Church are obvious. 
Rome clearly recognises what is at stake for China, and for the Chinese Church. Its own pronouncements on the issue highlight the principled subservience of the Church to secular authority and emphasise that China’s Catholics, including the unrecognised bishops, are law-abiding citizens. In what is perhaps a premonition of the new spirit of cooperation, the Vatican publicly denounced 
[8] a priest in Hebei who had named himself bishop in the underground Church, and claimed theauthority to elevate others within what would essentially be a splinter church.
While there is no way of predicting how the agreement will play out, official channels within bothChina and the Vatican have been publicly sanguine about the future, and agree that the task movingforward is to build trust, and that this will be a long-term process.
http://www.eastasiaforum.org/2017/02/23/whats-behind-the-rapprochement-between-china-and-the-vatican/
URLs in this post:
[1] draft agreement:
[2] has been particularly outspoken:
[3] suggesting:
https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/nov/28/pope-china-vatican-deal-would-betray-christ-says-former-hong-kong-bishop
[4] close relationship with Taiwan:
http://www.scmp.com/news/china/policies-politics/article/2010542/taiwans-tussle-mainland-china-over-ties-vatican-and-why
[5] campaign against Falun Gong:
http://www.theepochtimes.com/n3/2215759-analysis-behind-the-chinese-regimes-latest-scrutiny-of-falun-gong/
[6] Recently promulgated revisions:
[7] attempts to suppress underground Protestant churches:
http://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-10-08/chinese-communist-partys-crackdown-on-religion/7912140
[8] Vatican publicly denounced:
http://www.scmp.com/news/china/diplomacy-defence/article/2043732/vatican-denounces-chinese-priests-self-ordination

Lyme disease

Here is a picture of our awesome outing to the springs and oboo in Weinahe. Looks nice  doesn’t it?

 

Other than the fact that we finally have some good photos for our album of 90s college rock, do you by chance notice anything about these pictures? Anything that perhaps separates one of us from the others?  That’s right, one of us is wearing shorts and a t-shirt. Compare me to Marlboro Man Jan Kiely, who did take seriously the repeated and explicit advice to cover up.

And of course, as soon as we got back to the hotel, people started talking about ticks. I found three, including one that had already made its way to real estate that I can’t mention in a family blog. And yes, his head was already detached and lodged in my skin. Think about that for a moment. I sure have.

By the time I got to Harbin a few days later, I was already feeling achy, but figured that was just the stress of travel. By the time I got to Kyoto a few days after that, I was feeling achy, sweaty and dopey, plus the big one – rashy. So I went and got a blood test. Yep, it was blood alright, and moreover blood that swimming with critters that they said was maybe Lyme disease, or maybe something similar, but in any case something that they felt comfortable carpet bombing with antibiotics.

Unfortunately, the antibiotics (no doubt combined with with the stress of months of travel, and the Lyme disease itself) completely knocked me out — literally — I ended up passing out and waking up in a hospital– not once, but twice. That’s a record.

Lesson to be learned? Don’t get Lyme disease. That is also the lesson I learned with dengue, scarlet fever, salmonella and probably some others. I think the real lesson may be just stay the hell home, but “home” being Canberra (for the moment), I probably won’t be taking it much to heart.

 

Homeless in Hong Kong

Most people who know me have heard my stories about sleeping in parks in Taipei, or “urban camping” in some of Europe’s more (or less) welcoming cities. Sure it was no fun to be outside, but for the most part it was a matter of choice. I could have called home (that’s right kids, we’re talking about the world as we knew it B. I.*) to ask for money, or at least become a more determined houseguest. Not everyone has that luxury.

There is actually a pretty full spectrum of possibilities for how and why someone might themselves living in public. You might just need a couple of days between lodgings. I spent a couple of weeks living that way on the UCLA campus: regular work and classes during the day, and at night just find some spot to curl up and sleep. As long as your personal safety isn’t in danger, it’s actually pretty easy. Hell, you even save yourself the morning commute.

Other people find themselves outside seasonally. There are a lot of these people where I live in Hong Kong–they come from China to work and underestimate costs, or overestimate demand, or else just factor in a period of street life between jobs or before returning home.

IMG_0871The deadly cold snap in February brought out another sort. These were people who had homes, but were unable to stand living without heat. Central heat simply doesn’t exist in subtropical Hong Kong, and the temperatures were really hard to bear, especially at night, when it dropped below zero.

A lot of people took refuge in community centres like mine here in Taipo, which set up heated shelters. Others did (and many still do) camp out in restaurants like IMG_0894McDonalds, which are open 24 hours, and are remarkably welcoming. Even on normal business days, most HK McDonald’s are packed full of old people who order nothing, and set up for hours at a time. (I call it the McSenior Center, not to be confused with the McOffice, which is where I spend my weekends.)

During the cold snap these places also became especially busy McShelters, and to their credit, I never saw anyone ever try to move people on. Workers even went around handing out cups of hot water.

I deeply McRespect that.

*Before Internet

Historical perspective on China’s NGO draft law

This past summer, China introduced a new law aimed at curbing the activities of NGOs operating in the country. The law itself was heavily criticized in the international press, in part because the law closely resembled measures enacted in Russia under Putin. Similar measures have appeared in other jurisdictions, such as Cambodia.

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Above: the Guo Meimei scandal meets the Chinese Red Cross

The new restriction of NGOs in China raises questions about the direction of social change under the Xi Jinping government, which harken back to earlier debates about the origins and fate of civil society in China. These issues all turn on historical interpretation, whether the emergence of the NGO sector in China represents something fundamentally nw.

 

In some ways it does. China of course has its own tradition of charities, many of which operated hand in hand with government relief and social welfare, but the current sector is more visible and more politically vocal than anything China has seen before. It is also far larger. Compared to the size of the economy, the NGO sector today completely dwarfs the missionary charities of the early twentieth century, and are an order of magnitude larger and better organized than imperial-era charities.

For more on this topic, see my recently published article: “Before the NGO: Chinese charities in historical perspective.

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